Sufis’ Actions Against the Dutch in Aceh in The Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries

Fakhriati Fakhriati

Abstract


Sufis in Aceh, historically, had shown its real action in their daily life in relation to both vertical and horizontal. For vertical relations, the followers performed any Sufi practice leading them to their God. For horizontal relationship, they protected and defended their society and state by performing jihad against the Dutch as colonizers and infidels for them. There are at Ieast three factors influenced Sufis actions to be more attractive. First, the condition of Acehnese sultanate became weak. Second, the Dutch seemed eagerly to expand their colonial territory to Aceh. Third, the Acehnese had already kept in touch with other Muslims in Arabia since the Islam coming to this area. This article elaborates in detail on this matter by using primary sources from manuscripts and archives. Besides, secondary sources are also referred for comperation.

Keywords


sufi, ulama, Aceh, jihad, and Dutch

Full Text:

PDF PDF

References


Manuscripts

Manuscripts are indicated in the note texts.

Archives

Dutch colonial archives that are from the fonner Ministry of the Colonies kept in Algemeen Rijksarchiefin the Hague are indicated in the in note texts.

Proces-verbaal van Verhoor in de zitling der Commissie, 1873.

Books, Theses, and Articles

Alfian. Ibrahim, 1970. Uleebalang di Atjeh Menghadapi Belanda pada Akhir Abad XlX, Kualalumpur: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Arberry, AJ., 1950, Sufism: An Account of the Mystics of Islam. London: Georfe Allen & Unwin LTD.

Archer, R.L., 1937, ‘Muhammadan Mysticism’ in JMBRAS, VoL 15, pt.2, pp. 1-66.

Atjeh, Aboebakar, 1979, Tarekat dalam Tasawuf, Malaysia: Pustaka Aman Press.

Nimtz. Jr. August H, 1980, Islam and Politic in East Africa: The Sufi Order in Tanzania, University of Minnesota Press.

Azra, Azyumardi. 1995, Jaringan Ulama Timur Tengah dan Kepulauan Nusantara Abad XVII dan XVIII. Bandung: Mizan.

Baihaqi, A.K., 1976, Ulama dan Madrasah di Aceh. Monograph, Jakarta: Leknas-LIPI.

Bruinsma, J.F.D., 1889, De Verovering van Atjeh’s ,Groote Missigit, Nijmegen: H. Pyttersen Tz.

Clerck, E.S. de, 1912, De Atjeh Oorlog, Vol. 1, Martinus Nijhoff.

Coser, Lewis. 1979, ‘Conflict Structuralism II: Maintaining the structure through Conflict in Contemporary Sociological Theory, ed. By Margaret M. Poloma, London: Collier Macmillan Publishers, pp. 65-79.

Dekmejian, H. Richard and Margaret J. Wyszomirski, 1972, ‘Charismatic Leadership in Islam: The Mahdi of the Sudan' in Comparative Studies in Society and Theory. pp. 193-210.

Djajadiningrat Hoesein, 1934, Atjehsch-Nederlandsch Woordenboek, Vol. 2, Batavia, Landsdrukkerij.

Drewes, G.W.J., 1938, DeMirakelen van Abdoel Kadir Djaelani, Bandoeng: A. C. Nix 7 CO.

Du Croo, M.H., 1943, Generaal Swart: Pacificator van Atjeh, Maastricht: Uitgave N.V. Leiter-Nypels.

Eisenstadt, S.N., (ed), 1968, Max Weber on Charisma and Institution Building, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Fakhriati, 2008, Menelusuri Tarekat Syattariyah lewat Naskah, Puslitbang Lektur Keagarnan, Badan Litbang dan Diklat Kementerian Agama RI.

Fathurrahman, 1999, Tanbih AI-Masyi: Menyoal Wahdatul Wujud Kasus Abdurrauf Singkel di Aceh abad ke 17, Bandung: Penerbit Mizan.

Gobee and C. Adriaanse, 1990, Nasihat-Nasihat C. Snouck Hurgronje Semasa Kepegawaiannya kepada Pemerintah Hindia Belanda 1889-1936. Vol. I, trans. by Sukarsih Jakarta: INIS.

Hadi, Abdul. W. M., 1995, Hamzah Fansuri: Risalah Tasawuf dan Puisi-puisinya, Bandung: Mizan.

Hing, Lee Kam, 1995, The Sultanate of Aceh: Relations with the British 1760-1824, Oxford University Press.

Holt, P.M., 1980, “lslamica Millenarism and the Fulfillment of the Prophecy' in The Prophecy and Milleniarism, ed. By Ann Williams, London, pp. 337-347.

lsmuha, 1976, Ulama Aceh dalam Perspektif Sejarah, Jakarta: Leknas - LIPI.

Jalaluddin 1982, Safinat al-Hukkām fi Takhlīsh al-Khisām, ed. By T. Mohammad Juned, Museum Aceh.

Johns. A.H., 1957, 'Malay Sufism as Illustrated in an Anonymous Collection of 17th Century Tracts', in JMBRAS, pp. 5-l00.

Kalabadzi, al-, 1995, Ajaran Kaum Sufi, Trans. By Rahmani Astuti, Bandung: Mizan.

Kern, R.A., 1938, ‘Verbreiding van den Islam’ in Geschiedenis van Nederlandsch Indie, Vol. 1, ed. By. F.W. Stapel, Amsterdam: N.V. Uitgeversmaatschappij, pp. 305-362.

Kern, R.A., 1979, Hasil Penyelidikan tentang Sebab Musahab Terjadinya Pembunuhun, trans. by Aboe Bakar, Banda Aceh: Pusat Dokumentasi dan Informasi Aceh.

Kiefer, Thomas, M., 1973, ‘Parrang Sabbil: Ritual Suicide among the Tausug of Jolo’ in BKI, Vol. 129, pp. 109-23.

Koloniaal Verslag, Vers!ag van Bestuur and Staal van Nedelandsch-Indie, Surinam en Curacao, ‘s-Gravenhage, 1928.

Koningsveld, P.Sj. Van., 1990, ‘Some Religious Aspects of the Aceh-War as reflected in Three Unpublished Arabic Documents' in Beberapa Kajian Indonesia dan Islam, ed. By. W.A.L. Stokhof nd N.J.G. Kaptein- Jakarta: INIS, pp.89-99.

Kreemer, J., 1923, Atjeh: Algemen Samenvatten Overzicht van Land en Volk van Atjeh en Onderhoorigheden, Vol. 2, Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Kruijt, J.A., 1877, Atjeh en de Atjehers: Twee Jaren Blokkade of Sumatra’s Noor-Oost-Kust, Leiden: Gualth. Kolf.

Latif, Hamdiah. 1992. Persatuan Ulama Seluruh Aceh (PUSA): Its Contributions to Educational Reforms in Aceh. McGill University: MA Thesis.

Morris, Eric Eugene, 1985, Islam and Politics in Aceh: A Study of Center-Periphery Relations in Indonesia, Cornell University: PhD Dissertation.

Nimtz, August, H.Jr., 1980, Islam and Politic in East Asia: The Sufi Order in Tanzania., University of Minnesota Press.

Peter, Rudolph, 1979, Islam and Colonialism: The Doctrine of Jihad in Modern History, Amsterdarn.

Pudjiastuti, Titik, 1991, Sejarah Banten, pupuh 17, Universitas Indonesia: MA Thesis.

Pudjiastuti, Titik, 2007, Perang, Dagang, Persahabalan: Surat-surat Sultan Banten, Yayasan Obor Indonesia.

Radjab, Muhammad, 1964, Perang Paderi di Sumatra Barat (1803-1838), Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.

Rahman, Fazlur, 1996, Islam, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Rees, W.A. Van. 1865, De Banjarmasinche Krijg van 1859-1863, Vol. II, Arnhem: D.A. Thieme.

Reid, Anthony, 1969, The Contest for North Sumatra: Atjeh, The Netherlands and Britain 1858-1898, London: Oxford University Press.

Reid, Anthony, 2006, Verandah of Violence: The Background to the Aceh Problem, Singapore: NUS Press.

Sabi, Yusni, 1995, Islam and Social Change: The Role of the Ulama in Achehnese Society, PhD Dissertation.

Said, Muhammad, 1981, Aceh Sepanjang Abad, Vol. 1 and 2, Medan: P.T. Percetakan dan Penerbitan Waspada.

Siegel, Jammes, 1969, The Rope of God, Berkeley 7 Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Snouck Hurgronje, C., 1906, The Achehnese, Vol. 1 and 2, trans by. A.W.S. O’Sullivan Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Sofyan, Simail (ed), 1977, Perang Kolonial Belanda di Aceh, Banda Aceh: Pusat Dokumentasi dan Informasi Aceh.

Sulaiman, M. Isa, 1997, Sejarah Aceh: Sebuah Gugatan terhadap Tradisi, Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan.

Tichelman, G.L., 1933, ‘Een Athesche Sarakata' in TBG, No. 73. Pp.368-373.

Trimingham, J.S., 1973, The Sufi Orders in Islam, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Vaughhan-Lee, Llewellyn, 1993, ‘The Dhikr as an Archetype of Transformation’ in Sufi: A Journal of Sufism, Vol. 19, pp. 27-30.

Veer, Paul van't, 1969, De Atjeh Oorlog, Amsterdam: N.V. Uitgeverij de Arbeiderspers.

Watt, Montgomery, W., 1970, 'Muhammad' in The Cambridge History of Islam, Vol.1, ed. By P.M. Holt, London: Cambridge University Press, pp. 30-56.

Woelders, M.O., 1975. Het Sultanaat Palembang 1811-1825, 's-Gravenhagen: Nijhoff (VKI, No. 72).

Ya'kub, Ismail, 1960, Teungku Chik di Tiro: Hidup dan Perjuangannya, Jakarta: Bulan Bintang.

Yeoh, Siok Cheng, 1994, Umara-Ulama-Ummah Relations and Pesantrens in Acheh Province, Indonesia: A Study of the Challenges to the Authority of Traditional Kiyai, University of Washington: PhD Dissertation.




DOI: 10.31291/hn.v1i1.99

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2016 Heritage of Nusantara: International Journal of Religious Literature and Heritage

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

lantai 18, Puslitbang Lektur, Khazanah Keagamaan dan Manajemen Organisasi
Jalan M.H. Thamrin No.6, Menteng, RT.2/RW.1, Kb. Sirih, Menteng,
Kota Jakarta Pusat, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta 10340
Tlp/Fax: (021) 3920718
Handphone: +6281299366151
E-mail: heritage@kemenag.go.id


View My Stats
Flag CounterCreative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

© All rights reserved 2015. Heritage of Nusantara, ISSN: 2303-243X, e-ISSN: 2442-9031